SystemVerilog Datatypes

SystemVerilog Data Types

Structural Data Types

wire and reg

structural data types called nets, which model hardware connections between circuit components. The wire nets act like real wires in circuits. The reg type holds their values until another value is put on them, just like a register hardware component.

The declarations for wire and reg signals are inside a module but outside any initial or always block.

The initial state of a,

reg is x unknown, wire is z.

Behavioral Data Types

integer, real, and time

An integer declares one or more variables of type integer. These variables can hold values ranging from -2^31 to (2^31)-1.

Integer Syntax:

 integer integer_variable_name; 

A real declaration declares one or more variables of type real. The real variables are stored as 64-bit quantities, and store the real values. Real numbers can be specified in either decimal notation (for example, 14.72) or in scientific notation (for example, 39e8).

Examples:

1.8 635.16

1.2E12 (the exponent symbol can be e or E)

1.30e-2

Syntax

real real_variable_name; 

Both integer and real variables are initialized to zero at the start of the simulation.

Examples:

integer a[0:64] ; // an array of 65 integer values 

real float_v ; // a variable to store real value

Time

Time is a 64-bit quantity that can be used in conjunction with the $time system task to hold simulation time. Time is not supported for synthesis and hence is used only for simulation purposes.

Syntax

time time_variable_name;

Parameters

Parameters represent constants, hence it is illegal to modify their value at runtime. However, parameters can be modified at compilation time to have values that are different from those specified in the declaration assignment. This allows the customization of module instances. A parameter can be modified with the defparam statement, or in the module instance statement.

parameter size = 16 ;

logic

logic is the improved version of reg form Verilog to SystemVerilog, so it Can be driven by continuous assignments, gates, and modules in addition to being a variable. declaration:

                    bit                             – Unsigned
                    byte, shortint, int, longint    – Signed
                       unsigned two-state types,
                          bit            single_bit ;    // unsigned single bit
                          bit [31:0]     32_bit      ;    // 32-bit unsigned integer
                       signed two-state types,
                          int           integer;   // 32-bit signed integer
                          byte          8_bit  ;   //   8-bit signed integer
                          shortint      16_bit ;   // 16-bit signed integer
                          longint       64_bit ;   // 64-bit signed integer
                       unsigned from signed two-state types,
                           int           unsigned integer;   // 32-bit unsigned integer
                           byte          unsigned  8_bit;   //   8-bit unsigned integer
                           shortint      unsigned  16_bit;   // 16-bit unsigned integer
                           longint       unsigned  64_bit;   // 64-bit unsigned integer

Void Data Types

The void data type represents non-existent data. This type can be specified as the return type of functions, indicating no return value.

syntax:   
         void’(function_call());

String

A string data type is variable size, it is a dynamically allocated array of bytes.

        string declaration examples:
              string             s1    =   "Hellow World";
              string             s2    =   {"Hi"," ",s1};
              bit [31:0]         b      =   128;
              string             s3    =   b;      // sets 128 to s3
module string_datatype;
   //declaration
   string s1 = "Hello World";
   string s2 = {"Hi,"," ",s1};
   bit[31:0]b= 128;
   string s3 = b; // sets 128 to s3
 initial begin
     //display values
     $display("String 1 s1 = %0s",s1);
     $display("String 2 s2 = %0s",s2);
     $display("String 3 s3 = %0d bit b = %0d",s3,b);
   end
 endmodule

Simulator Output

String 1 s1 = Hello World
String 2 s2 = Hi, Hello World
String 3 s3 = 128 bit b = 128

Click to execute on

EVENT

SystemVerilog enhances the Verilog event in several ways. An event is now a handle to a synchronization object that can be passed around to routines. In Verilog, if the triggerin

g thread executes before the blocking thread, the trigger is missed. SystemVerilog introduces triggered function t­­­­­hat lets you check whether an event has been triggered.

event declaration examples,

          event  e1;
          event  e2;
          event  done;

A detailed explanation of events and Event operations are explained in later chapters(SystemVerilog Events).

User Defined

The user can define a new type using typedef, as in C. This can then be instantiated as,

                     integer_v var1;
                     integer_v var2;

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